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Global Climate Change Impacts on Earth
10. July 2018 at 19:17
by Nisha Meena
The global climate is changing: the impacts associated with the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from human activities–changes in mean temperature, shifts in seasons and an increasing intensity of extreme weather events–are already occurring and will worsen in the future. Millions of people, particularly those in developing countries, face shortages of water and food and greater risks to health. Adaptation measures that reduce vulnerability to climate change are critical, especially in many countries where the risks are here and now.
Without action in the form of adaptation of social, human, economic, and natural resource management systems, these weather changes are predicted to result in decreasing surface and ground water availability, flash floods, degradation of soil resources, decrease in crop yields, greater vulnerability to crop pest outbreaks, and declines in forest and pastureland ecosystem goods and services, thus rendering agricultural and herding communities extremely vulnerable to weather related losses of life, livelihood, and food security. Climate change affects every aspect of society, environment and economy requiring adjustments in behaviour, livelihoods, infrastructure, laws, policies and institutions in response to experienced based expected climatic events. Solutions must be integrated to address the interrelationships between water, agriculture, forests and pastures, livestock. However, adapting to climate change will entail adjustments and implementation at every level – from community to national and international.


The Major Issue of Climate Change
For many years, climate change has become a massive issue around the world.Climate change is a significant and lasting change and the largest problem facing our planet.Climate change is usually defined as the rise of earth's temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sea level.It is a serious phenomenon on environment and living organism on the earth's surface.It also plays a significant role of nature of the environment.In addition, the main cause of climate change or global warming is by human activities for many years ago such as the burning of fossil fuels.The impact of climate change is caused many consequences on the earth and the environment such as melting ice, floods and serious typhoons and causing the death of many of the organisms on earth.

The environment has become worse by the change of climate. Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. According to Hertsgaard, climate change will lead to serious consequences on the environment, especially agriculture. (181) Climate change has become a major problem faced by the farmers and caused the death of many agricultural crops. Many countries suffer from the deterioration of the state of agriculture in their countries.

Besides the environment, climate change caused many health problems and diseases on human and animals. Climate change makes many existing diseases and conditions worse and it poses unique challenges to human health. According to Hertsgaard, climate change kills 150,000 people a years around the world. (54) Climate change affects environmental determinants of health such as clean air, safe drinking water, sufficient food and secure shelter. Many diseases clearly began to appear on the level of the world such Cancers, many of epidemic diseases, respiratory diseases and heart diseases.

In addition, disasters are becoming more common across the world causes by climate change. Disasters are defined as a result or a consequence of climate change, which has a negative effect on human beings and environment. Unfortunately, it seems as though there will be no real effort to stop or even slow the seriousness of these changes. To sum up, climate change is caused many serious disasters and leads to harmful environment.


Impacts of Climate Changes on Agriculture & Food Security
Agriculture and fisheries are highly dependent on the climate. Increases in temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) can increase some crop yields in some places. But to realize these benefits, nutrient levels, soil moisture, water availability, and other conditions must also be met. Changes in the frequency and severity of droughts and floods could pose challenges for farmers and ranchers and threaten food safety.Meanwhile, warmer water temperatures are likely to cause the habitat ranges of many fish and shellfish species to shift, which could disrupt ecosystems.

Overall, climate change could make it more difficult to grow crops, raise animals, and catch fish in the same ways and same places as we have done in the past. The effects of climate change also need to be considered along with other evolving factors that affect agricultural production, such as changes in farming practices and technology.


Impacts on Crops
Despite technological improvements that increase corn yields, extreme weather events have caused significant yield reductions in some years. Source: USGCRP (2009).Crops grown in the United States are critical for the food supply here and around the world. U.S. farms supply nearly 25% of all grains (such as wheat, corn, and rice) on the global market.Changes in temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather could have significant impacts on crop yields.

For any particular crop, the effect of increased temperature will depend on the crop's optimal temperature for growth and reproduction.In some areas, warming may benefit the types of crops that are typically planted there, or allow farmers to shift to crops that are currently grown in warmer areas. Conversely, if the higher temperature exceeds a crop's optimum temperature, yields will decline.

1. Higher CO2 levels can affect crop yields. Some laboratory experiments suggest that elevated CO2 levels can increase plant growth. However, other factors, such as changing temperatures, ozone, and water and nutrient constraints, may counteract these potential increases in yield. For example, if temperature exceeds a crop's optimal level, if sufficient water and nutrients are not available, yield increases may be reduced or reversed. Elevated CO2 has been associated with reduced protein and nitrogen content in alfalfa and soybean plants, resulting in a loss of quality. Reduced grain and forage quality can reduce the ability of pasture and rangeland to support grazing livestock.

2. More extreme temperature and precipitation can prevent crops from growing. Extreme events, especially floods and droughts, can harm crops and reduce yields. For example, in 2010 and 2012, high nighttime temperatures affected corn yields across the U.S. Corn Belt, and premature budding due to a warm winter caused $220 million in losses of Michigan cherries in 2012.

3.Dealing with drought could become a challenge in areas where rising summer temperatures cause soils to become drier. Although increased irrigation might be possible in some places, in other places water supplies may also be reduced, leaving less water available for irrigation when more is needed.

4.Many weeds, pests, and fungi thrive under warmer temperatures, wetter climates, and increased CO2 levels. Currently, U.S. farmers spend more than $11 billion per year to fight weeds, which compete with crops for light, water, and nutrients. The ranges and distribution of weeds and pests are likely to increase with climate change. This could cause new problems for farmers' crops previously unexposed to these species.

Though rising CO2 can stimulate plant growth, it also reduces the nutritional value of most food crops. Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reduce the concentrations of protein and essential minerals in most plant species, including wheat, soybeans, and rice. This direct effect of rising CO2 on the nutritional value of crops represents a potential threat to human health. Human health is also threatened by increased pesticide use due to increased pest pressures and reductions in the efficacy of pesticides.

Agriculture production will be affected by increasing temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and more frequent and intense extreme weather events. These will have direct effects on crop growth and their need for water, as well as soil fertility, water supply for irrigation, and prevalence of pests and diseases. In terms of livestock, climate change also will affect the quality and amount of feed supply and water.

The WorldWatch Institute reports that the Earth’s ice cover is melting in more places and at higher rates than at any time since record keeping began. (March 6, 2000).Rising sea levels will impact many coastlines, and a large mass of humanity lives near the coasts or by major rivers. Analysis by the World Wildlife Fund has found that many cities are unprepared for climate change effects such as rising sea levels.


Climate Change Affects Human Health
In 2016, the U.S. Global Change Research Program produced a report that analyzed the impacts of global climate change on human health in the United States. The report finds that:
• Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the American people.
• Climate change can affect human health in two main ways: first, by changing the severity or frequency of health problems that are already affected by climate or weather factors; and second, by creating unprecedented or unanticipated health problems or health threats in places or times of the year where they have not previously occurred.

Increase in Pests and Diseases
An increase in pests and disease is also feared.A report in the journal Science in June 2002 described the alarming increase in the outbreaks and epidemics of diseases throughout the land and ocean based wildlife due to climate changes.One of the authors points out that, Climate change is disrupting natural ecosystems in a way that is making life better for infectious diseases.


Food Security
Food security Act in India 2013, Food security means Accessibility, Affordability and Availability. Need For Food Security:
1.For the poor sections of the society
2. Natural disasters or calamity like earthquake, drought, flood, tsunami
3.Widespread crop failure due to drought
4.Women face brunt of climate change impacts

It is recognized that poorer nations will suffer the worst from climate change, either because of geographical reasons, and/or because they will have less resources to cope with a problem (mostly caused by emissions from rich countries over the past decades).Women—particularly those in poor countries—will be affected differently than men. They are among the most vulnerable to climate change, partly because in many countries they make up the larger share of the agricultural work force and partly because they tend to have access to fewer income-earning opportunities.

Women manage households and care for family members, which often limits their mobility and increases their vulnerability to sudden weather-related natural disasters. Drought and erratic rainfall force women to work harder to secure food, water and energy for their homes. Girls drop out of school to help their mothers with these tasks. This cycle of deprivation, poverty and inequality undermines the social capital needed to deal effectively with climate change.


Simple Ways To Help Prevent Climate Change
Don't have too much time on your hands, but you still want to make a change? Here are ten basic things you can do to help prevent climate change.
1.Change a light bulb-Use a compact fluorescent bulb. It saves 150 lbs. of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year.
2.Drive less-Using a bike or walking can reduce ga consumption and it saves 1 lb. of CO2 for each mile you don't drive.
3.Recycle-You can save up to 2,400 lbs. of CO2 a year by recycling the things you throw away.
4.Check your tires-When your tires are properly inflated, you save gas. For each gallon saved, 20 lbs. of CO2 are never produced.
5.Use less hot water-You can save energy by using cold water to wash your hands instead of hot water.
6.Avoid products with a lot of packaging-When you buy things with a lot of packaging, you have a lot of waste. If you don't waste things in the first place, energy is saved and fewer resources are consumed.
7. Plant a tree-A tree can absorb a ton of CO2 in its lifetime.
8.Turn off electronic devices when not in use-By turning off your kitchen light or turning off the T.V., you can save a thousand lbs. of CO2 each year.
9.Stay informed- Stay Aware, Be prepare.


Climate change will affect all four dimensions of food security, namely food availability (i.e., production and trade), access to food, stability of food supplies, and food utilization (1, 43). The importance of the various dimensions and the overall impact of climate change on food security will differ across regions and over time and, most importantly, will depend on the overall socio-economic status that a country has accomplished as the effects of climate change set in.

Climate change will increase the dependency of developing countries on imports and accentuate existing focus of food insecurity in the developing world, the adverse impacts of climate change will fall disproportionately on the poor. However, it is likely that differences in socio-economic development paths will also be the crucial determinant for food utilization in the long run and that they will be decisive for the ability to cope with problems of food instability, be they climate-related or caused by other factors.
Cite This Article As: Nisha Meena. "Global Climate Change Impacts on Earth." International Youth Journal, 10. July 2018.

Link To Article: https://youth-journal.org/global-climate-change-impacts-on-earth





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